Atomic Theory and Structure

The Mole: Its History and Use

by Anthony Carpi, Ph.D.


Mass Molarity Calculator


Further Exploration

The Mole Concept

F. Senese, Frostburg State U. - From General Chemistry Online, the mole and molar calculations

Some Notes on Avogadro's Number, 6.023 x 1023

T. Furtsch, Tennessee Tech University - More notes and links on the topic.


Amadeo Avogadro

Amedeo Avogadro


Essay on a Manner of Determining the Relative Masses of the Elementary Molecules of Bodies

A. Avogadro's 1811 paper introducing the equal volume hypothesis.

Sketch of a course of chemical philosophy

S. Cannizzaro's 1858 atomic weight paper.

On the size of the air molecules

J. Loschmidt's 1865 paper.

News & Events

Celebrate Mole Day

Current Science News

News from around the world of science.


Google Scholar

Google - Research database allows searching of the scholarly literature.


Formula to Mass Calculator

H. Rzepa, Imperial College - Java applet calculates mass of compounds and predicts compounds given chemical mass.

Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States

National Academies Press: A Framework for K-12 Science Education