Chemical RelationshipsAcids and Bases: An Introduction

by Anthony Carpi, Ph.D.

Further Exploration

Acid and Base, pH Tutorial

Chemistry Dept., U. British Columbia - An excellent, comprehensive set of tutorials on acid/base chemistry including practice tests.

Acid-Base Tutorial

J. Park, ChemTeam - Extensive tutorials detailing acid base chemistry in historical context.

History of Chemistry - Acids and Bases

BBC - A summary of major advances in Acid Base research.


Svante Arrhenius
Svante Arrhenius

Johannes Bronsted
Johannes Brønsted


Some Remarks on the Concept of Acids and Bases

J. Brønsted - excerpts from his 1923 paper. 

The Measurement and Meaning of Hydrogen Ion Concentration

S. Sörensen - excerpts from his 1909 paper. 

News & Events

Folic Acid Lowers Risk of Heart Disease

U. Michigan (ScienceDaily)

Current Science News

News from around the world of science.


Google Scholar

Google - Research database allows searching of the scholarly literature.


Virtual Titration

Mihye Won, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - Virtual chemistry lab for acid-base titration.

Acid-Base Solutions

An interactive simulation to explore how concentration and strength affect ph. Published by PhET at the University of Colorado.

The universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.
—Eden Phillpotts, 1862-1960