Chemical Relationships

Acids and Bases: An Introduction

by Anthony Carpi, Ph.D.

Further Exploration

Acid-Base Pairs, Strength of Acids and Bases, and pH

Dr. George M. Bodner, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University

Acid-Base Tutorial

J. Park, ChemTeam - Extensive tutorials detailing acid base chemistry in historical context.

A Basic History of Acid— From Aristotle to Arnold

By Mark S. Lesney, discusses the rise of acid/base theory and how its associated instruments transformed chemistry.


Svante Arrhenius

Svante Arrhenius

Johannes Bronsted

Johannes Brønsted


Some Remarks on the Concept of Acids and Bases

J. Brønsted - excerpts from his 1923 paper. 

The Measurement and Meaning of Hydrogen Ion Concentration

S. Sörensen - excerpts from his 1909 paper. 

News & Events

Folic Acid Lowers Risk of Heart Disease

U. Michigan (ScienceDaily)

Current Science News

News from around the world of science.


Google Scholar

Google - Research database allows searching of the scholarly literature.


Virtual Titration

Mihye Won, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - Virtual chemistry lab for acid-base titration.

Acid-Base Solutions

An interactive simulation to explore how concentration and strength affect ph. Published by PhET at the University of Colorado.

Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States

National Academies Press: A Framework for K-12 Science Education