Physical States and PropertiesStates of Matter

by Anthony Carpi, Ph.D.

Further Exploration

States of Matter

Chemtutor - A good overall description of the states of matter.

Phase

Wikipedia - An excellent definition with links to descriptions of the various phases.

Perspectives on Plasmas

T. Eastman, Plasmas International - Introductory description, pictures and great links.

Bose-Einstein Condensates

The Why Files, U. Wisconsin - Background and description of the state of matter.

Biography

Thales
Thales of Miletus

Satyendranath Bose
Satyendra Nath Bose

Classics

Quantum Theory of the Monoatomic Ideal Gas

A. Einstein, Proceedings of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, 1925 - Original draft manuscript, in Einstein's own handwriting, that predicts the clumping together of atoms into a "mono-atom" at absolute zero.

News & Events

Bose-Einstein Condensates Break Temperature Record

Physics Web

Scientists at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered an exotic new state of matter

Quartz - Report on the discovery of a new state of matter, the "pentaquark," which is an atomic particle made up of 5 quarks.

Plasma Television Displays

Howstuffworks

Current Science News

News from around the world of science.

Research

Quantum Theory of the Monoatomic Ideal Gas

A. Einstein, Proceedings of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, 1925 - Original draft manuscript, in Einstein's own handwriting, that predicts the clumping together of atoms into a "mono-atom" at absolute zero.

Bose-Einstein Condensation Research

C. Weiman, U. Colorado - Current research page of the 2001 Nobel laureate who created the first B-E condensate. Includes illustrations of the state.

Google Scholar

Google - Research database allows searching of the scholarly literature.

Experiment!

A Sense of Scale: Absolute Zero

PBS NOVA - Interactive to travel from absolute zero to what may be the highest temperature of all.

Reaching Ultra-Low Temperatures

PBS NOVA - Interactive using the "cascade" process to achieve dramatically lower temperatures.