Atmosphere and Oceans

History of Earth’s Atmosphere I: The Origin of the Modern Atmosphere

by Julia Rosen, Ph.D., Anne E. Egger, Ph.D.

Further Exploration

Volcanic Gases and Their Effects

From the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), this site describes the different volcanic gases that are released during eruptions and how they affect the atmosphere.

Evolution Of The Atmosphere: Composition, Structure And Energy

Lecture from the University of Michigan on how Earth's atmosphere evolved into its current form.

How did Earth's atmosphere form?

From NASA and NOAA, information on the formation of Earth's atmosphere.

Life and the Evolution of Earth’s Atmosphere

PDF document from the American Museum of Natural History on Earth's atmosphere.

Earth's Primordial Atmosphere

Discussion of early Earth's atmosphere from the National Earth Science Teachers Association.


Cecilia Payne

Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin

Francis Aston

Francis Aston


Google Scholar

Google - Research database allows searching of the scholarly literature.


Atmosphere Design Lab

An interactive tool from the Smithsonian Institution that allows you to change the amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ozone in a test atmosphere.

Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States

National Academies Press: A Framework for K-12 Science Education