Biologia CelularLas Células: Descubrimiento y Estructura Básica

por Nathan Lents, Ph.D., Heather Falconer, M.A./M.S.

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Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of life. This module traces the discovery of the cell in the 1600s and the development of modern cell theory. The module looks at similarities and differences between different types of cells and the relationship between cell structure and function. The Theory of Universal Common Descent is presented along with evidence that all living things on Earth descended from a common ancestor.

Resumen

Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of life. This module traces the discovery of the cell in the 1600s and the development of modern cell theory. The module looks at similarities and differences between different types of cells and the relationship between cell structure and function. The Theory of Universal Common Descent is presented along with evidence that all living things on Earth descended from a common ancestor.

Términos que usted debe saber
  • function = special purpose; designated action
  • membrane = a thin layer of tissue
  • structure = physical form; the arrangement of parts; the way something is built

Figure 1: The cork described in Micrographia by Robert Hooke.

Figure 2: van Leeuwenhoek's simple microscope. On the brass plate is a small magnifying lens mounted and a sharp point that would hold the specimen. Turning the screws would adjust the position and focus. image © Jeroen Rouwkema

Control de Comprensión

Antony van Leeuwenhoek's work led to the field of

Figure 3: Leeuwenhoek's drawing of protozoa.

Figure 4: The cells of eukaryotes (left) and prokaryotes (right). image © National Institute of Health

Control de Comprensión

The first formal statement in cell theory was that:

Figure 5: A diagram of a typical animal cell. Components include: 1. Nucleolus, 2. Nucleus, 3. Ribosome (little dots), 4. Vesicle, 5. Rough endoplasmic reticulum, 6. Golgi apparatus, 7. Cytoskeleton, 8. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, 9. Mitochondrion, 10. Vacuole, 11. Cytosol, 12. Lysosome, 13. Centrosome, 14. Cell membrane image © Kelvinsong

Figure 6: The chemical structure of DNA. image © Visionlearning, Inc.

Figure 7: A timescale of prokaryote evolution. From the article by Battistuzzi, F.U., Feijao, A., and Hedges, S.B. 2004. A genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 4: 44. image © 2004 Battistuzzi et al.

Figure 8: The cell membrane in-folding and creating a nuclear envelope. image © Kelvinsong

Control de Comprensión

The Theory of Universal Common Descent argues that

Control de Comprensión

The production of ______ allows the cell to carry out most of its activities.

Control de Comprensión

In eukaryotes, the main purpose of cell division is to


Conceptos Clave

  • Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of all living things and contain inheritable genetic material.
  • The activity of a cell is carried out by the sub-cellular structures it possesses.
  • Cells possess an outer boundary layer, called a cell membrane, cytoplasm, which contains organelles, and genetic material.
  • There is considerable variety among living cells, including the function of membranes and sub-cellular structures, and the different types of functions the cells carry out, such as chemical transport, support, and other functions.

Lectura Adicional

Referencias

Anderson, D. 2009. Overview: The curious observer. Lens on Leeuwenhoek. Retrieved from: http://lensonleeuwenhoek.net/content/overview-curious-observer. Brillouet, J.M., Romieu, C., Schoefs, B., Solymosi, K., Cheynier, V., Fulcrand, H., . . . Conejero, G. 2013. The tannosome is an organelle forming condensed tannins in the chlorophyllous organs of Tracheophyta. Annals of Botany, 112(6), 1003-1014. Harris, H. 2001. The birth of the cell. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Hooke, R. 1664. Micrographia: Some physical descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses with observations and inquiries thereupon. London: The Royal Society of London. Leeuwenhoek, A. van. 1674. More observations from Mr. Leeuwenhoek in a letter of Sept. 7, 1674 sent to the publisher. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 9, 178-182. Schwann, T. 1847. Microscopic investigations on the accordance in the structure and growth of plants and animals. (H. Smith, Trans.). London: The Sydenham Society. (Original work published in 1839). Stumpf, C.R., Moreno, M.V., Olshen, A.B., Tayloremail, B.S., Ruggero, D. 2013. The translational landscape of the mammalian cell cycle. Molecular Cell, 52(4), 574-582.


Nathan Lents, Ph.D., Heather Falconer, M.A./M.S. “Las Células” Visionlearning Vol. BIO-1 (2), 2003.

Si he logrado ver más allá, ha sido apoyandome en los hombros de gigantes.
(carta a R. Hooke)
—Sir Isaac Newton,
1643 - 1727