Atomic Theory and Structure
Atomic Theory I: The Early Days
by Anthony Carpi, Ph.D.
Did you know that scientists used to think that atoms resembled billiard balls or raisin bread, although neither of these views proved accurate? Atoms are so tiny that 20 million hydrogen atoms could fit on this dash -. In spite of their incredibly small size, scientists have come to an accurate understanding of atomic structure.
Modern atomic theory has evolved dramatically from the 19th century view of the atom as a small, solid sphere resembling a billiard ball. This module explores that story: from the discovery of electrons and protons in the late 19th century to the planetary model of the atom in the early 20th century. The module explains the function of subatomic particles as well as their relative size and weight. The concepts of atomic number and atomic mass are introduced.
Until the final years of the nineteenth century, the accepted model of the atom
resembled that of a billiard ball – a small, solid sphere. In 1897, J. J. Thomson dramatically changed the modern view of the atom with his
discovery of the electron. Thomson's work suggested that the atom
was not an "indivisible" particle as John Dalton had suggested but a jigsaw puzzle made of
Thomson's notion of the electron came from his work with a nineteenth century scientific curiosity: the cathode
ray tube. For years scientists had known that if an electric current was passed through
a vacuum tube, a stream of glowing material could be seen; however, no one
could explain why. Thomson found that the mysterious glowing stream
would bend toward a positively charged electric plate. Thomson theorized,
and was later proven correct, that the stream was in fact made up of small
particles, pieces of atoms that carried a negative charge. These
particles were later named electrons.
After Eugen Goldstein's 1886 discovery that atoms had positive charges, Thomson imagined that atoms looked like pieces of raisin bread, a structure in which clumps of small, negatively charged electrons (the "raisins") were scattered inside a smear of positive charges. In 1908, Ernest Rutherford, a former student of Thomson's, proved Thomson's raisin bread structure incorrect.
Rutherford proposes a planetary model of an atom
Rutherford performed a series of
experiments with radioactive alpha particles. While it was unclear
at the time what the alpha particle was, it was known to be very tiny. Rutherford fired tiny alpha particles at solid objects such as gold foil. He found that while most of the alpha particles passed right through the gold foil, a small number of alpha particles passed through at an angle (as if they had bumped up against something) and some bounced straight back like a tennis ball hitting a wall. Rutherford's experiments suggested that gold foil, and matter in general, had holes in it! These holes allowed most of the alpha particles to pass directly through, while a small number ricocheted off or bounced straight back because they hit a solid object.
In 1911, Rutherford proposed a revolutionary view of the atom. He
suggested that the atom consisted of a small, dense core of positively
charged particles in the center (or nucleus) of the atom, surrounded by a swirling ring
of electrons. The nucleus was so dense that the alpha particles would
bounce off of it, but the electrons were so tiny, and spread out at such
great distances, that the alpha particles would pass right through this
area of the atom. Rutherford's atom
resembled a tiny solar system with the positively charged nucleus always
at the center and the electrons revolving around the nucleus.
The positively charged particles in the nucleus of the
atom were called protons.
Protons carry an equal, but opposite, charge to electrons, but protons
are much larger and heavier than electrons.
Chadwick discovers the neutron
In 1932, James Chadwick discovered a third type of subatomic particle, which he named the neutron. Neutrons help stabilize the protons in the atom's nucleus. Because the nucleus is so tightly packed together, the positively charged protons would tend to repel each other normally. Neutrons help to reduce the repulsion between protons and stabilize the atom's nucleus. Neutrons always reside in the nucleus of atoms and they are about the same size as protons. However, neutrons do not have any electrical charge; they are electrically neutral.
Atoms are electrically neutral because the number of protons (+ charges) is
equal to the number of electrons (- charges) and thus the two cancel out.
As the atom gets larger, the number of protons increases, and so does the number of electrons
(in the neutral
state of the atom). The illustration linked below compares the two
simplest atoms, hydrogen and helium.
Atoms are extremely small.
One hydrogen atom (the smallest atom known) is approximately 5 x 10-8 mm
in diameter. To put that in perspective, it would take almost 20 million hydrogen atoms
to make a line as long as this dash -. Most of the space taken up by an
atom is actually empty because the electron spins at a very far distance from the nucleus.
For example, if we were to draw a hydrogen atom to scale and used a 1-cm
proton (about the size of this picture -
atom's electron would spin at a distance of ~0.5 km from the nucleus.
In other words, the atom would be larger than a football field!
Atoms of different elements are distinguished from each other by their number of protons (the number of protons is constant for
all atoms of a single element; the number of neutrons and electrons can vary under some circumstances). To identify this important characteristic of atoms, the term atomic number (z)
is used to describe the number of protons in an atom. For
example, z = 1 for hydrogen and z = 2 for helium.
Another important characteristic of an atom is its weight, or atomic mass. The weight of an atom is roughly determined by the total number of protons and neutrons in the atom. While protons and neutrons are about the same size, the electron is more than 1,800 times smaller than the two. Thus the electrons' weight is inconsequential in determining the weight of an atom – it's like comparing the weight of a flea to the weight of an elephant.
Refer to the animation above to see how the number of protons plus neutrons in the hydrogen and helium atoms corresponds to the atomic mass.