American geologist born in Rochester, New York (1843-1918). Gilbert participated in the Wheeler geologic survey of the American West. His field studies resulted in the publication on The Geology of the Henry Mountains, which established his preeminence as a geologist. In 1879, he was appointed the Senior Geologist at the newly created US Geological Survey. In addition to his study of the Henry Mountains, Gilbert investigated the Pleistocene Lake Bonneville. He is considered a major founder of the field of geomorphology, having investigated and published on erosion, river incision and sedimentation.