(ca. 371 – ca. 287 BCE) A Greek philosopher from Lesbos who studied under Plato and Aristotle. He had a broad range of interests, including biology, physics, ethics and metaphysics. Two of his influential botanical works survive: Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants. Other surviving works include On Moral Characters, On Sensation, On Stones, and various fragments on physics and metaphysics. His best-remembered quote is "Life is ruled by fortune, not wisdom."

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