[mathematics] Using trends or patterns identified within a data set to estimate the value of variables outside the range of the original data.

[general science] To make an estimate, form a hypothesis, or draw a conclusion about an unknown situation by applying trends seen or evidence discovered in a similar situation. For example, if scientists document that a certain species' population has declined in one area because of a rise in temperature, they may be able to extrapolate (or make a prediction) about how the species will respond to a rise in temperature in another location.

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