Evolutionary Biology

Adaptation: The Case of Penguins

by Iris Saxer, M.A./M.S., Alfred L. Rosenberger, Ph.D.

Further Exploration

Penguins of Antarctica

British Antarctic Survey

Penguin Adaptations

Ideas for the Classroom, Gulf of Maine Aquarium


A SeaWorld Education Department Resource

Pete & Barb's Penguin Pages

150 information pages on penguins with 250 photographs.


Georges-Louis Buffon

Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon

News & Events

Proteins Aid in Adaptation


Penguins Escape Earthquake

BBC News

Current Science News

News from around the world of science.


Iris with penguin

The Penguin Diaries

Biologist Iris Saxer records her observations of Pygoscelid penguins in Antarctica.

Google Scholar

Google - Research database allows searching of the scholarly literature.


Penguin Secrets of Survival Challenge

From Nature, an interactive game to learn about penguin adaptations for survival in the arctic.

Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States

National Academies Press: A Framework for K-12 Science Education