Atomic Theory and Structure

The Mole (previous version): Its History and Use

by Anthony Carpi, Ph.D.

Further Exploration

Mass Molarity Calculator


The Mole Concept

F. Senese, Frostburg State U. - From General Chemistry Online, the mole and molar calculations

Some Notes on Avogadro's Number, 6.023 x 1023

T. Furtsch, Tennessee Tech University - More notes and links on the topic.


Amedeo Avogadro


Essay on a Manner of Determining the Relative Masses of the Elementary Molecules of Bodies

A. Avogadro's 1811 paper introducing the equal volume hypothesis.

Sketch of a course of chemical philosophy

S. Cannizzaro's 1858 atomic weight paper.

On the size of the air molecules

J. Loschmidt's 1865 paper.

News & Events

Celebrate Mole Day


Google Scholar

Google - Research database allows searching of the scholarly literature.