Atmosphere and Oceans

Factors that Control Earth's Temperature

by Julia Rosen, Ph.D., Anne E. Egger, Ph.D.

Further Exploration

Climate time machine

(NASA) Go backward and forward in time with this interactive visualization that illustrates how the Earth's climate has changed in recent history.

The Sun: A virtual tour

(NASA) Explore the inner workings of our host star and learn about the sun's role in climate change.


Svante Arrhenius

Svante Arrhenius


Meteorology by Aristotle

Aristotle's treatise on "all the affections we may call common to air and water, and the kinds and parts of the earth and the affections of its parts."

News & Events

Earth's oxygen levels can affect its climate

(Smithsonian) By analyzing climate models, scientists determined that oxygen in the atmosphere altered Earth's climate in the past.

Surface of the oceans affects climate more than thought

( Discussion of research on a gas produced by oceans, isoprene, that can form particles that affect temperature and precipitation.


Google Scholar

Google - Research database allows searching of the scholarly literature.

Experiment! Online Converters

Convert a variety of measurements - length, area, mass, etc. - via a variety of online converters from

Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States

National Academies Press: A Framework for K-12 Science Education