Physical Properties


by Martha Marie Day, Ed.D., Anthony Carpi, Ph.D.

Further Exploration

A brief history of thermometers

By Tim Radford, The Guardian

About Temperature

B. Lynds, Project SkyMath - Detailed description of temperature, thermometers, and related concepts.

The Temperature of Heaven

Humorous calculation from the journal Applied Optics estimating the temperature of heaven and hell.


Anders Celsius

Anders Celsius

William Kelvin

Lord William Kelvin

News & Events

MIT team achieves coldest temperature ever

From EuerkAlert! - MIT scientists cooled sodium gas to the lowest temperature ever recorded: half-a-billionth of a degree above absolute zero.

USA's Coldest Spots

USA Today

Today's Temperature (USA)

The Weather Channel

Current Science News

News from around the world of science.


Google Scholar

Google - Research database allows searching of the scholarly literature.


Temperature Converter

Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States

National Academies Press: A Framework for K-12 Science Education